|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,186||Benefits minus costs||$6,588|
|Participants||$4,163||Benefit to cost ratio||$5.65|
|Others||$2,130||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($475)||benefits greater than the costs||59 %|
|Net program cost||($1,416)|
|Benefits minus cost||$6,588|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Standardized, validated tests of academic achievement.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms
Clinical diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms
Clinical diagnosis of a disruptive behavior disorder (e.g., conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Symptoms of internalizing behavior (e.g., sadness, anxiety, or withdrawal) measured on a validated scale.
Major depressive disorder
Clinical diagnosis of major depression or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Stress reported by a parent, typically measured on a validated scale such as the Parental Stress Index.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Test scores||Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$1,426||$3,349||$1,767||$0||$6,542|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||Criminal justice system||$11||$0||$24||$5||$40|
|K-12 grade repetition||$2||$0||$0||$1||$3|
|K-12 special education||$112||$0||$0||$56||$168|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$227||$64||$234||$113||$638|
|From secondary participant|
|Major depressive disorder||Labor market earnings associated with major depression||$307||$720||$0||$0||$1,027|
|Health care associated with major depression||$102||$29||$105||$51||$286|
|Mortality associated with depression||$0||$1||$0||$7||$7|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($708)||($708)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$2,265||2015||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($1,416)|
|Comparison costs||$868||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||40 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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