Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$6,414||Benefits minus costs||$25,716|
|Participants||$158||Benefit to cost ratio||$8.53|
|Others||$20,366||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$2,192||benefits greater than the costs||72 %|
|Net program cost||($3,415)|
|Benefits minus cost||$25,716|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Alcohol use disorder
Clinical diagnosis of alcohol use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Illicit drug use disorder
Clinical diagnosis of illicit drug use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale. When possible, we exclude cannabis/marijuana use disorder from this outcome.
Substance use disorder^
A non-specified alcohol or drug use disorder. Typically, a collection of different types of disorders reported by study authors.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$5,986||$0||$19,969||$2,993||$28,948|
|Alcohol use disorder||Labor market earnings associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$0||$0||$0||$1|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Illicit drug use disorder||Health care associated with illicit drug abuse or dependence||$386||$60||$397||$193||$1,037|
|Mortality associated with illicit drugs||$42||$98||$0||$714||$853|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($1,707)||($1,707)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$3,114||2012||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($3,415)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2012||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Friedman, A.S., Terras, A., & Glassman, K. (2002). Multimodal substance use intervention program for male deliquents. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 11(4), 43-65.
Henderson, C.E., Dakof, G.A., Liddle, H.A., & Greenbaum, P.E. (2010). Effectiveness of multidimensional family therapy with higher severity substance-abusing adolescents: Report from two randomized controlled trials. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(6), 885-897.