Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$5,855||Benefits minus costs||$23,151|
|Participants||$1,890||Benefit to cost ratio||n/a|
|Others||$12,419||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$2,635||benefits greater than the costs||100 %|
|Net program cost||$352|
|Benefits minus cost||$23,151|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$5,123||$0||$11,295||$2,561||$18,979|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$937||$2,201||$1,218||$0||$4,356|
|Costs of higher education||($205)||($311)||($93)||($103)||($711)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||$176||$176|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,021||2006||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||$352|
|Comparison costs||$1,510||2015||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Blakely, C.H. (1981). The diversion of juvenile delinquents: a first step toward the dissemination of a successful innovation. Doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University.
Davidson, W.S., & Basta, J. (1989). Diversion from the juvenile justice system: research evidence and a discussion of issues. Advances in clinical child psychology, 12, 85-111.
Davidson, W.S., II, Redner, R., Blakely, C.H., Mitchell, C.M., & Emshoff, J.G. (1987). Diversion of juvenile offenders: an experimental comparison. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55(1), 68-75.
Emshoff, J. G., & Blakely, C. H. (1983). The diversion of delinquent youth: Family-focused intervention. Children and Youth Services Review, 5(4), 343-356.