|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$562||Benefits minus costs||$2,106|
|Participants||$1,320||Benefit to cost ratio||$7.69|
|Others||$696||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($157)||benefits greater than the costs||60 %|
|Net program cost||($315)|
|Benefits minus cost||$2,106|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Standardized, validated tests of academic achievement.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|null||Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$562||$1,320||$696||$0||$2,578|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($157)||($157)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$291||2013||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($315)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2013||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Dash, S., de, Kramer, R.M., O'Dwyer, L.M., Masters, J., & Russell, M. (2012). Impact of online professional development on teacher quality and student achievement in fifth grade mathematics. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 45(1), 1-26.
de Kramer, R.M., Masters, J., O'Dwyer, L.M., Dash, S., & Russell, M. (2012). Relationship of online teacher professional development to seventh-grade teachers' and students' knowledge and practices in English language arts. Teacher Educator, 47(3), 236-259.
Masters, J., Magidin, K.R., O'Dwyer, L., Dash, S., & Russell, M. (2012). The effects of online teacher professional development on fourth grade students' knowledge and practices in English language arts. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 20(1), 21-46.