|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,109||Benefits minus costs||$1,123|
|Participants||$640||Benefit to cost ratio||$1.83|
|Others||$961||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($235)||benefits greater than the costs||69 %|
|Net program cost||($1,352)|
|Benefits minus cost||$1,123|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Major depressive disorder^^
Clinical diagnosis of major depression or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms
Clinical diagnosis of a disruptive behavior disorder (e.g., conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Symptoms of internalizing behavior (e.g., sadness, anxiety, or withdrawal) measured on a validated scale.
Stress reported by a parent, typically measured on a validated scale such as the Parental Stress Index.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||Criminal justice system||$34||$0||$83||$17||$135|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$226||$531||$290||$0||$1,047|
|K-12 grade repetition||$7||$0||$0||$3||$10|
|K-12 special education||$293||$0||$0||$146||$439|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$586||$166||$605||$293||$1,651|
|Costs of higher education||($37)||($57)||($17)||($19)||($130)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($676)||($676)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$2,205||2015||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($1,352)|
|Comparison costs||$868||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||30 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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