|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$3,560||Benefits minus costs||$3,709|
|Participants||$3,611||Benefit to cost ratio||$1.66|
|Others||$4,012||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($1,817)||benefits greater than the costs||59 %|
|Net program cost||($5,657)|
|Benefits minus cost||$3,709|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any employment, including part-time work.
Percent change in labor market earnings, typically weekly or monthly wages.
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$2,023||$0||$4,012||$1,011||$7,046|
|Earnings||Labor market earnings||$1,537||$3,611||$0||$0||$5,149|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($2,828)||($2,828)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$4,717||2007||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($5,657)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2007||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Berk, R.A., Lenihan, K.J., & Rossi, PH. (1980). Crime and poverty: Some experimental evidence from ex-offenders. American Sociological Review, 45(5), 766-786.
Jacobs, E. (2012). Returning to work after prison: Final results from the Transitional Jobs Reentry Demonstration. New York, NY: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.
Mallar, C.D., & Thornton, C.V.D. (1978). Transitional aid for released prisoners: Evidence from the life experiment. The Journal of Human Resources, 13(2), 208-236.
Redcross, C., Bloom, D., Jacobs, E., Manno, M., Muller-Ravett, S., Seefeldt, K., . . . Zweig, J. (2010). Work after prison: One-year findings from the Transitional Jobs Reentry Demonstration. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.
Redcross, C., Millenky, M., Rudd, T., & Levshin, V. (2012). More than a job: Final results from the Evaluation of the Center for Employment Opportunities (CEO) Transitional Jobs Program. OPRE Report 2011-18. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Uggen, C. (2000). Work as a turning point in the life course of criminals: A duration model of age, employment, and recidivism. American Sociological Review, 65(4), 529–546.