Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$746||Benefits minus costs||($2,593)|
|Participants||$2,009||Benefit to cost ratio||$0.17|
|Others||($745)||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($1,473)||benefits greater than the costs||43 %|
|Net program cost||($3,131)|
|Benefits minus cost||($2,593)|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Alcohol use disorder
Clinical diagnosis of alcohol use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Smoking tobacco on a regular basis.
Cannabis use disorder
Clinical diagnosis of cannabis use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Substance use disorder^
A non-specified alcohol or drug use disorder. Typically, a collection of different types of disorders reported by study authors.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||($437)||$0||($1,130)||($218)||($1,784)|
|Regular smoking||Labor market earnings associated with smoking||$807||$1,897||$0||$0||$2,704|
|Health care associated with smoking||$373||$105||$384||$186||$1,049|
|Mortality associated with smoking||$3||$6||$0||$125||$134|
|Alcohol use disorder||Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$0||$1||$0||$1|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($1,565)||($1,565)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$2,855||2012||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($3,131)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2012||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Chassin, L., Knight, G., Vargas-Chanes, D., Losoya, S.H., & Naranjo, D. (2009). Substance use treatment outcomes in a sample of male serious juvenile offenders. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 36 (2), 183-194.
Henderson, C.E., Wevodau, A.L., Henderson, S.E., Colbourn, S.L., Gharagozloo, L., North, L.W., & Lotts, V.A. (2016). An independent replication of the adolescent-community reinforcement approach with justice-involved youth. The American Journal on Addictions, 25 (3), 233-240.