|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$3,352||Benefits minus costs||($11,489)|
|Participants||$799||Benefit to cost ratio||$0.02|
|Others||$457||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($4,396)||benefits greater than the costs||30 %|
|Net program cost||($11,700)|
|Benefits minus cost||($11,489)|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Standardized, validated tests of academic achievement.
K-12 grade repetition
Repeating a grade. This is sometimes called "grade retention."
K-12 special education
Placement into special education services.
Externalizing behavior symptoms
Symptoms of externalizing behavior (e.g., aggressive, hostile, or disruptive behavior) measured on a validated scale.
Symptoms of internalizing behavior (e.g., sadness, anxiety, or withdrawal) measured on a validated scale.
Any form of welfare assistance, such as Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) or Assistance for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC).
Substance use disorder^
A non-specified alcohol or drug use disorder. Typically, a collection of different types of disorders reported by study authors.
Any employment, including part-time work.
Major depressive disorder
Clinical diagnosis of major depression or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Test scores||Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$242||$569||$300||$0||$1,111|
|K-12 grade repetition||K-12 grade repetition||$50||$0||$0||$25||$74|
|K-12 special education||K-12 special education||$1,829||$0||$0||$914||$2,743|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||$72||$20||$74||$36||$201|
|From secondary participant|
|Public assistance||Public assistance||$866||($316)||$0||$433||$983|
|Major depressive disorder||Labor market earnings associated with major depression||$214||$502||$0||$0||$716|
|Health care associated with major depression||$80||$23||$83||$40||$227|
|Mortality associated with depression||$0||$1||$0||$6||$7|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($5,850)||($5,850)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$7,600||2010||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($11,700)|
|Comparison costs||$1,679||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Roggman, L.A., Boyce, L.K., & Cook, G.A. (2009). Keeping kids on track: Impacts of a parenting-focused early head start program on attachment security and cognitive development. Early Education and Development, 20(6), 920-941.
Vogel, C.A., Xue, Y., Moiduddin, E.M., Carlson, B.L., & Kisker, E. (2010). Early Head Start children in grade 5: Long-term follow-up of the Early Head Start research and evaluation study sample (Final Report) (Document No. PR10-61). Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research.