|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$13,616||Benefits minus costs||$25,166|
|Participants||$13,749||Benefit to cost ratio||$3.45|
|Others||$9,117||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($1,037)||benefits greater than the costs||82 %|
|Net program cost||($10,279)|
|Benefits minus cost||$25,166|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
K-12 grade repetition
Repeating a grade. This is sometimes called "grade retention."
High school graduation
On-time completion of high school with a diploma (excluding GED attainment).
K-12 special education
Placement into special education services.
Smoking tobacco on a regular basis.
Child abuse and neglect
Substantiated or founded reports to child protective services.
The removal of a child from parental care, most often to foster care.
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Standardized, validated tests of academic achievement.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$1,190||$0||$2,415||$595||$4,200|
|High school graduation||Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$5,439||$12,776||$6,966||$0||$25,181|
|Costs of higher education||($1,130)||($960)||($315)||($565)||($2,970)|
|Child abuse and neglect||Child abuse and neglect||$179||$1,917||$0||$90||$2,186|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$0||$1||$0||$1|
|Mortality associated with child abuse and neglect||$1||$2||$0||$15||$18|
|K-12 grade repetition||K-12 grade repetition||$417||$0||$0||$208||$625|
|K-12 special education||K-12 special education||$7,167||$0||$0||$3,583||$10,750|
|Out-of-home placement||Out-of-home placement||$305||$0||$0||$153||$458|
|Regular smoking||Health care associated with smoking||$48||$14||$50||$24||$135|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($5,140)||($5,140)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$5,597||2007||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($10,279)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2007||Cost range (+ or -)||30 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Reynolds, A.J., Temple, J.A., Robertson, D.L., & Mann, E.A. (2002). Age 21 cost-benefit analysis of the Title I Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 24(4), 267-303.
Reynolds, A.J., Temple, J.A., White, B.A., Ou, S.R., & Robertson, D.L. (2011). Age-26 cost-benefit analysis of the child-parent center early education program. Child Development, 82(1), 379-404.
Topitzes, J., Mersky, J.P., Godes, O., Ceglarek, S., & Reynolds, A.J. (2009). Educational success and adult health: Findings from the chicago longitudinal study. Prevention Science, 10(2), 175-195.