|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$962||Benefits minus costs||$4,053|
|Participants||$2,136||Benefit to cost ratio||$26.36|
|Others||$1,166||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($51)||benefits greater than the costs||55 %|
|Net program cost||($160)|
|Benefits minus cost||$4,053|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
In-school suspensions, out-of-school suspensions, or expulsions from school
Standardized, validated tests of academic achievement.
A pattern of unexcused absences from school.
Number or percentage of school days present in a given enrollment period.
Externalizing behavior symptoms
Symptoms of externalizing behavior (e.g., aggressive, hostile, or disruptive behavior) measured on a validated scale.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Test scores||Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$905||$2,127||$1,122||$0||$4,154|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||Criminal justice system||$4||$0||$9||$2||$16|
|K-12 special education||$20||$0||$0||$10||$29|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||$33||$9||$34||$17||$94|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($80)||($80)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$143||2011||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($160)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2011||Cost range (+ or -)||30 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Fortson, J., James-Burdumy, S., Bleeker, M., Beyler, N., London, R.A., Westrich, L., . . . Castrechini, S. (2013). Impact and implementation findings from an experimental evaluation of Playworks: Effects on school climate, academic learning, student social skills and behavior. Princeton, N.J: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
Leos-Urbel, J., & Sanchez, M. (2015). The relationship between Playworks participation and student attendance in two school districts.